Johann Herbart Being

PHILOSOPHY AND EDUCATION For Alexander Fernandes Dantas Philosophy and Education are two areas of the knowledge. Therefore the area of the knowledge demands a primordial question: How the human being acquires new forms of knowledge of the world encircles that it? The Philosophy takes in them to the investigation: So that it serves the education? Which are the ends? It is important to delimit the reach that we are arguing, that is, we say of the Man occidental person or oriental. In the reality we are in restricting to the Man the occidental person, having as starting point Old Greece. In these initial questions a college of the human being is distinguished: the power to abstract and to reflect on what it exists human. Here, two questions emerge: general one, the diverse purposes (or felt) in sight of which if dirige the educative process.

E to another one, technique, of the procedures that demand specific knowledge of the concrete situations and of the ways that can be used in functions of those. Two educators of prominence who had privileged a reflection on the ends of the education in detriment of some procedures technician had been Johann Pestalozzi (1746-1827) and Georg Kerschensteiner (1854-1921). Pestalozzi defended the belief in half supreme the educative process as for the individual and social perfectioning. It believed that ' ' the education if constructs in a permanent tension enters the desires of the individual natural man and the development of the nature human being universal' '. That is, the education produces the universality from the particularitity and this from that one. Kerschensteiner gave distinction to professional education, to the development of the direction of civic responsibilities, the preservation of the public good and participation of the citizen in the subjects of general interest. It defended the existence of bonds between the educative process and the life. On the other hand, the educators Johann Herbart (1776-1841) and John Dewey (1859-1952) if basically to withhold in the formularization and analysis of methods, from ends previously established.

Herbart contributes for the recognition of the pedagogia as science. It was the one precursor experimental psychology applied to the pedagogia, having as objective the Ethics and ways Psychology. Dewey contributed for the spreading of its New School, refusing the idea of that the educative principle is marked by the instruction; it considers one to educate come back toward the action. For it the knowledge is a directed activity that does not have an end in itself exactly, is the experience that will be the tone of rightness of the education. Of these two chains sobressai the question of ' ' fins' ' therefore he is proper of the philosophical thought to formulate investigations that turn on being of the man in the world, with the introduction of values and of the moral.